JURISDICTION OF CRIMINAL COURTS IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS (SECTIONS 177-189)

by | Oct 16, 2023

JURISDICTION OF CRIMINAL COURTS IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS (SECTIONS 177-189)

INTRODUCTION

Jurisdiction in criminal courts is a critical aspect of the legal system, governing where inquiries and trials take place. This comprehensive guide explains the provisions laid out in Sections 177 to 189 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) that determine the Jurisdiction Of Criminal Courts In Inquiries And Trials in India. It clarifies the distinctions between inquiries, local jurisdictions, and trials, and how each section contributes to this complex legal framework.

Inquiry

  • Definition and Purpose: Section 2(g) defines an Inquiry as any request, other than a trial, investigated by a Magistrate or Court. This stage precedes the trial and focuses on determining whether allegations are sustainable.
  • Key Point: Inquiries can result in discharge or commitment to trial, not convictions or acquittals.

Local Jurisdiction:

  • Definition: Section 2(j) defines Local Jurisdiction as the geographical area within which a court or Magistrate can exercise its powers under the CrPC.
  • Significance: Understanding Local Jurisdiction is crucial for the proper application of the law.

Trial.

  • Definition and Significance: The Trial is the central stage where the guilt or innocence of an accused person is determined. It follows the inquiry stage and marks the final phase of a judicial proceeding.

JURISDICTION OF CRIMINAL COURTS : SECTIONS 177-189

SECTION 177 – ORDINARY PLACE OF INQUIRY AND TRIAL

  • Explanation: This section states that ordinarily, the inquiry for every offense should occur within the local jurisdiction where the offense was committed.
  • Note: The term ‘ordinary’ implies flexibility, allowing for exceptions based on specific circumstances.

SECTION 178 – PLACE OF INQUIRY OR TRIAL

  • Application: This section addresses situations where the location of the offense is uncertain, or it spans multiple areas.
  • Example: An illustration demonstrates how this section applies in a complex case involving multiple offenses committed in different places.

SECTION 179 – OFFENSE TRIABLE WHERE ACT IS DONE OR CONSEQUENCES

  • Explanation: Section 179 deals with cases where the act constituting the offense occurs in one place, but the consequences are felt in another.
  • Illustration: In the case where A was hit by a truck in Ghaziabad but passed away in a Delhi hospital, Section 179 allows for the offense to be inquired into or tried in either Gurugram or Delhi, considering that the act occurred in Gurugram while the consequence (death) happened in Delhi.

SECTION 180 – PLACE OF TRIAL WHEN AN ACT IS AN OFFENSE BY ITS RELATION WITH ANOTHER OFFENSE

  • Application: This section discusses offenses related to other offenses and where they may be inquired into or tried.
  • Illustration: In cases of abetment, the inquiry or trial can occur where the abetment or the resulting offense took place. Likewise, for charges related to receiving stolen goods, the inquiry or trial can be conducted where the theft occurred or where the goods were received or retained dishonestly.

SECTION 181 – PLACE OF TRIAL IN CERTAIN OFFENSES

  • Application: Section 181 provides specific rules for the trial of offenses like thuggery, dacoity, kidnapping, theft, robbery, and more.
  • Note: These provisions offer clarity on where these particular offenses should be tried.

SECTION 182 – OFFENSES COMMITTED BY LETTERS

  • Explanation: This section pertains to offenses involving cheating through letters or telecommunication messages.
  • Note: It addresses the jurisdiction for cases involving deception through written communication.

SECTION 183 – OFFENSES COMMITTED ON A JOURNEY OR VOYAGE

  • Interpretation: Section 183 applies to offenses committed during continuous journeys or voyages.
  • Distinction: It distinguishes between ‘journey’ and ‘voyage’ and explains how jurisdiction is determined in such cases.

SECTION 184 – PLACE OF TRIAL FOR OFFENSES TRIABLE TOGETHER

  • Provision: This section discusses the trial of multiple offenses committed by one person or by multiple people.
  • Note: It emphasizes the possibility of trying related offenses together for efficiency.

SECTION 185 – POWER TO ORDER CASES TO BE TRIED IN DIFFERENT SESSION DIVISIONS

  • Authority: The state government can direct specific cases or classes of cases to be inquired into or tried in different session divisions within a district. This directive must align with prior instructions from the High Court or Supreme Court and not violate any existing laws.
  • Importance: This provision helps manage cases efficiently within the judicial system.

SECTION 186 – HIGH COURT TO DECIDE IN CASE OF DOUBT

  • Resolution: Section 186 addresses situations where the same offense is tried by multiple courts, resolving jurisdictional doubts.
  • Process: It outlines the decision-making process when multiple courts are involved.

SECTION 187 – POWER TO ISSUE SUMMONS OR WARRANT FOR OFFENSE COMMITTED BEYOND LOCAL JURISDICTION

  • Jurisdiction Extension: This section enables a First-Class Magistrate to inquire into offenses committed outside their jurisdiction, subject to certain conditions.
  • Exception: It deals with situations where more than one Magistrate claims jurisdiction, allowing the High Court to decide.

SECTION 188 – OFFENSES COMMITTED OUTSIDE INDIA

  • Scope: Section 188 covers offenses committed by Indian citizens on high seas or abroad and the conditions for their trial.
  • Approval Requirement: Emphasizes the need for prior central government approval for such trials.

SECTION 189 – RECEIPT OF EVIDENCE RELATING TO OFFENSES COMMITTED OUTSIDE INDIA

  • Central Government’s Role: Section 189 grants the central government the authority to deliver evidence to the court conducting an inquiry or trial.
  • Importance: It ensures that evidence from foreign jurisdictions can be considered in Indian courts.

Conclusion

In summary, Sections 177-189 of the CrPC provide a comprehensive framework for determining the Jurisdiction Of Criminal Courts In Inquiries And Trials. While the general rule is that inquiries and trials should occur within the local jurisdiction of the offense, these sections offer flexibility to handle complex scenarios. Understanding these provisions is essential for a fair and efficient legal process.

Reference:-

1-https://www.aajtak.in/amp/crime/police-and-intelligence/story/code-of-criminal-procedure-179-under-crpc-section-179-offence-triable-where-act-is-done-or-consequence-ensues-meaning-of-crpc-section-179-crime-lno-1498848-2022-07-13 -AAJ TAK

2-https://www.aajtak.in/amp/crime/police-and-intelligence/story/code-of-criminal-procedure-188-under-crpc-section-188-offence-committed-outside-india-crime-lno-1502582-2022-07-20 -AAJ TAK

Written By Archana Singh

I am Archana Singh, a recent law master's graduate with a strong aspiration for the judicial service. My passion lies in elucidating complex legal concepts, disseminating legal news, and enhancing legal awareness. I take immense pride in introducing my new legal website - The LawGist. Through my meticulously crafted blogs and articles, I aim to empower individuals with comprehensive legal insights. My unwavering dedication is to facilitate a profound comprehension of the law, enabling people to execute judicious and well-informed choices.

Related Posts