by | Sep 30, 2023

The Indian Contract Act, 1872, plays a vital role in governing contractual agreements in India. Within this act, Communications, Acceptance, and Revocation are essential aspects that shape the formation and termination of Contracts.

  1. COMMUNICATION – In contract law, effective communication between parties is crucial. Communication may be expressed through various means such as written, oral, or even conduct. The intention to communicate must be clear and unambiguous for the terms of the contract to be established.
  2. ACCEPTANCE –  Acceptance is the affirmative response given by the party to whom an offer is made.  Acceptance must be unconditional and in accordance with the terms specified in the offer. It can be expressed orally, in writing, or even implied through conduct, as long as it aligns with the offer’s requirements. 
  3. REVOCATION – Revocation refers to the act of withdrawing or canceling an offer or acceptance.  An offer can be revoked at any time before it is accepted, but communication of revocation must reach the intended recipient.  Once acceptance has been communicated, it cannot be revoked, leading to the formation of a binding contract. 
  4. MODES OF COMMUNICATION –   The Indian Contract Act recognizes several modes of communication, such as post, telegraph, fax, email, or any other means agreed upon by the parties. – It is important to ensure that the chosen mode is capable of conveying the message accurately and promptly.
  5. ACCEPTANCE  & REVOCATION BY POST –  Acceptance or revocation sent by post is considered valid when it is properly addressed, prepaid, and posted. It takes effect when it is posted, even if it is delayed, lost, or never received by the sender.
  6. TIME OF COMMUNICATION –  Parties must consider the time it takes for communication to be delivered and received. The Indian Contract Act specifies that communication is deemed complete when it reaches its intended recipient.


  •  A sends B a letter offering to sell a house at a certain price. The offer is considered complete when B receives the letter. 
  • B accepts A’s offer by sending a letter through the mail. The acceptance is considered complete for A as soon as the letter is mailed, and for B as soon as A receives the letter.
  • If A sends a telegram to revoke their proposal, the revocation becomes effective for A as soon as the telegram is sent. However, for B, the revocation only becomes effective when B receives the telegram. Similarly, if B sends a telegram to revoke their acceptance, the revocation becomes effective for B once the telegram is sent. However, for A, the revocation only becomes effective when A receives the telegram. 
  • A wants to sell their house to B, and they send a letter to B offering the sale. B receives the letter and agrees to buy the house, which they confirm by sending a letter back to A. Before B sends their acceptance letter, A can change their mind and cancel the offer. However, once B has mailed their acceptance letter, A can no longer revoke the offer. On the other hand, B can also change their mind before A receives their acceptance letter. But once A receives the acceptance letter, B cannot revoke their agreement.

Understanding Communications, Acceptance, and Revocation under the Indian Contract Act is essential for anyone involved in contractual agreements. Proper communication ensures transparency and clarity, leading to the formation of legally binding contracts.  Adhering to the provisions outlined within the act helps protect the interests of all parties involved.




Written By Nancy Sharma

I am Nancy Mahavir Sharma, a passionate legal writer and , a judicial service aspirant who is interested in legal researching and writing. I have completed Latin Legum Magister degree. I have been writing from past few years and I am excited to share my legal thoughts and opinions here. I believe that everyone has the potential to make a difference.

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