by | Jan 9, 2024

Ayodhya Dispute carries a very special cultural and religious reverence in India, marked not only by devotion but also beset with legal complications.

Background of Ayodhya Dispute:

Ayodhya is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh and it is considered to be the birthplace of Lord Rama. The controversy surrounding Ayodhya Dispute is based on the Hindu claim that Babri Masjid was constructed over birthplace of Lord Rama. Battles over this site cause tensions for centuries.

History of Ayodhya Dispute:

16th century lays at the historical roots of Ayodhya and was under dispute over the place where Babri Masjid razed to ground. 1992 saw the mosque destroyed by a crowd, further escalating religious and communal hostility all over India.

Landmark Legal Cases:

  1. 1949: Idol installation at the disputed site.
  2. 1986: District Judge orders opening of the locks and allows Hindus to worship.
  3. 1992: Babri Masjid demolition.
  4. 2010: Allahabad High Court verdict – division of the land among Hindus and Muslims.
  5. 2019: Supreme Court verdict – the land awarded to Hindus for the construction of a temple; Muslims allocated an alternative site.
  6. Resolution of a longstanding dispute.
  7. Potential for communal harmony.
  8. Opportunity for constructive development in the region.


  1. Resolution of a longstanding dispute.
  2. Potential for communal harmony.
  3. Opportunity for constructive development in the region.


  1. Discontent among the minority community.
  2. Political exploitation of the issue.
  3. Lingering tensions and potential for further disputes.

Timeline of Events:

  • 1528: Babri Masjid construction.
  • 1857-1947: Periodic communal tensions.
  • 1949: Idol installation.
  • 1989-1992: Intensification of the dispute.
  • 1992: Babri Masjid demolition.
  • 2010: Allahabad High Court verdict.
  • 2019: Supreme Court verdict.


Year Events
1528 Controversial construction of Babri Masjid by Mir Baqi, claimed as Lord Rama’s birthplace by Hindus.
1853-1949 Communal riots; British administration erects a fence, granting worship rights to both communities.
1949 Idols of Lord Rama found inside the mosque; dispute begins; Uttar Pradesh government orders removal of idols.
1950 Petitions filed in Faizabad Civil Court seeking worship permission and idol installation.
1961 Sunni Waqf Board files a petition for possession of disputed land and idol removal.
1984 Faizabad district judge grants permission for Hindu worship; locks removed.
1992 Demolition of the mosque, triggering nationwide communal riots.
2002 Godhra train burning incident leads to riots in Gujarat.
2010 Allahabad High Court divides land among Sunni Waqf Board, Ram Lalla Virajman, and Nirmohi Akhara.
2011 Supreme Court stays Allahabad High Court’s decision.
2017 Supreme Court calls for an out-of-court settlement; charges BJP leaders with criminal conspiracy.
2019 Supreme Court refers the case for mediation; daily hearings commence; verdict on November 9.
2020 Idols of Ram Lalla shifted to a fiber temple; groundbreaking ceremony for temple construction.
2023 Grand temple prepared; consecration on January 22, 2024, marking the end of the decades-long dispute.


Landmark Cases and Subjects in Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi Issue

Landmark Cases and Subjects in Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi Issue
1. Title Suit (Babri Masjid Demolition):
– Subject: Demolition of Babri Masjid.
– Sections Involved: Notably, Sections related to criminal conspiracy and destruction of a place of worship.
– Outcome: Demolition in 1992 led to nationwide communal riots.
2. Allahabad High Court Verdict (2010):
– Subject: Land division among Sunni Waqf Board, Ram Lalla Virajman, and Nirmohi Akhara.
– Sections Involved: Property laws, historical evidence, and religious sentiments.
– Outcome: Division of disputed land into three parts.
3. Supreme Court Verdict (2019):
– Subject: Ownership of disputed land and construction of Ram Mandir.
– Sections Involved: Constitutional law, property rights, and religious freedom.
– Outcome: Land awarded to Hindus for temple construction; an alternative site allocated for a mosque.
4. Criminal Conspiracy Charges (2017):
– Subject: Criminal conspiracy charges against BJP leaders.
– Sections Involved: Sections related to criminal conspiracy in Indian Penal Code.
– Outcome: Charges filed; case intertwined with political and religious dimensions.
5. Mediation Panel (2019):
– Subject: Attempted out-of-court settlement through mediation.
– Sections Involved: Emphasis on alternative dispute resolution methods.
– Outcome: Mediation unsuccessful; case reverted to Supreme Court.
6. Fiber Temple Construction (2020):
– Subject: Shifting idols from tent to a fiber temple.
– Sections Involved: Land use permissions and religious practices.
– Outcome: Preparation for the temple construction after 28 years.
7. Consecration of Grand Temple (2023):
– Subject: Final consecration of the Ram Mandir.
– Sections Involved: Religious ceremonies and public order regulations.
– Outcome: Scheduled consecration on January 22, 2024, marking the resolution of the decades-long dispute.



The Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi is a complex dispute with historical, religious as well as legal dimensions. 2019’s verdict by the Supreme Court was to arrive at a resolution that is balanced, and construction of the temple in later years represented closure though challenges and controversies may continue. January The 22nd consecration of the temple, in Ayodhya is a significant event that brings hope for harmony and coexistence there.

Also Read: Current Affair


Written By Vishakha Khatri

My name is Vishakha Khatri. I am an engineering graduate and a civil service aspirant with a passion for spreading knowledge about Indian polity. I believe that understanding our political system is crucial for every citizen, and I am committed to making this information accessible to everyone in my own easy way. Through my experiences in civil service preparation and my unique perspective as an engineering graduate, I hope to inspire and educate others on the importance of Indian polity.

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