9 and 10 OCTOBER, 2023

by | Oct 16, 2023

ISRO’s Giant Leap: Preparing for Gaganyaan Mission with TV-D1 Flight Test

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is on the cusp of a groundbreaking moment with the initiation of the Flight Test Vehicle Abort Mission 1 (TV-D1), a significant step in realising the ambitious Gaganyaan mission. This mission, poised to send Indian astronauts into space, symbolises a monumental stride in India’s space exploration endeavors, capturing the imagination and attention of the world. As ISRO gears up for this historic journey, let’s delve into the details of this exciting development.

Key Points:

  • Unmanned Flight Tests Begin: ISRO has announced the imminent commencement of unmanned flight tests for the Gaganyaan mission. These tests are a crucial precursor to manned missions and are set to begin soon.
  • Crew Escape System (CES): The CES, a pivotal component, is undergoing rigorous testing. Its reliability is paramount for astronaut safety, further underlining the mission’s significance.
  • Satish Dhawan Space Centre: The TV-D1 mission will unfold at the renowned Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, a site that has witnessed the launch of numerous successful missions.
  • Crew Module’s Vital Role: The Crew Module, responsible for the safe transport of astronauts, will be launched into outer space and recovered from the Bay of Bengal as part of the test.
  • Indian Navy’s Support: The Indian Navy is actively involved in mock operations for the recovery of the crew module post-splashdown in the Bay of Bengal, highlighting the cooperative efforts of ISRO and the Navy.
  • Prelude to Manned Missions: The TV-D1 mission serves as a pivotal stepping stone toward the first unmanned Gaganyaan mission, where systems and capabilities will be rigorously tested, bringing us closer to manned missions in low Earth orbit.
  • Astronaut Training in Bengaluru: Four carefully selected astronauts are undergoing rigorous training at the Astronaut Training Facility in Bengaluru, preparing them for the demanding conditions of space.
  • The Mighty HLVM3 Rocket: The heavy-lift launcher HLVM3 will play a critical role in propelling the Crew Module and astronauts into space, highlighting its significance in the mission.

As India inches closer to achieving the dream of sending its own astronauts into space, the TV-D1 mission signifies a monumental milestone in the Gaganyaan program. ISRO’s meticulous planning and comprehensive testing will ensure both the safety and success of this historic endeavor. With the Gaganyaan mission on the horizon, India is well on its way to joining the elite group of nations capable of human spaceflight. This mission not only underscores India’s technological prowess but also encapsulates the nation’s aspiration to explore the cosmos and inspire future generations to reach for the stars.

Source: AIR

Hamas Rocket Attack on Israel: The Iron Dome’s Battle in the Skies

  • Recent escalation: Palestine-based Hamas militants launch a barrage of rockets towards Israel.
  • Unconventional attack: Infiltrating Israeli towns near the Gaza Strip through land, air, and sea.
  • Israel-Hamas conflict: The situation highlights the ongoing tensions in the region.

The Iron Dome: Safeguarding Israel from Rocket Threats

  • Operation Al-Aqsa Flood: Hamas commander Mohammad Deif claims over 5,000 rockets launched into Israel.
  • Key defence: Israel relies on the Iron Dome, an advanced air defence system, to intercept incoming rockets.
  • Development and U.S. support: The system is developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems with substantial U.S. support.

How the Iron Dome Works

  • Sophisticated system: The Iron Dome is a truck-towed system equipped with radar-guided missiles.
  • Targeting short-range threats: It intercepts rockets, mortars, and drones while they are mid-air.
  • Radar technology: The system’s radar technology identifies and differentiates potential threats, allowing it to ignore harmless rockets.

Evolution and Cost

  • Expanding capabilities: Originally designed with a range of 4 to 70 kilometers, the system has evolved to provide broader coverage.
  • Cost of interception: The cost of launching an Iron Dome interceptor ranges from $50,000 to $100,000.
  • Reliability: While highly successful, the system encountered a technical glitch in May of the same year.

International Recognition and Naval Adaptations

  • Global recognition: The Iron Dome’s impressive track record and U.S. backing have earned it international acclaim.
  • Naval adaptation: Israel has adapted the system for naval use to protect ships and sea-based assets.
  • Versatility: This showcases the system’s ability to defend against a wide range of threats.


  • Significance of the Iron Dome: The recent Hamas rocket attack underlines the importance of the Iron Dome in safeguarding Israel against rocket threats.
  • Continuing conflict: The Iron Dome remains a critical component in the ongoing Israel-Hamas conflict, serving as a key defense system in the region.

Source: The Hindu

Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention, Food Inequities, and ESCAP: A Comprehensive View

  • Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention (SAI) presents concerns about potential food inequities.
  • This blog explores the agricultural impact of SAI and its broader implications.
  • Additionally, we will delve into the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), its founding in 1947, headquarters in Bangkok, Thailand, and its role as one of the United Nations’ five regional commissions.

Understanding SAI:

  • SAI is a geoengineering approach that aims to mitigate climate change by injecting sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere.
  • Often considered a “Plan B,” SAI seeks to mimic volcanic eruptions to reduce global temperatures.

SAI’s Agricultural Impact:

  • SAI’s temperature reduction affects agriculture differently based on regional factors.
  • Computer models are used to analyze the production of key crops (maize, rice, soybean, and spring wheat) under various SAI scenarios.
  • Cold regions benefit from unchecked climate change, while moderate SAI levels favor temperate mid-latitudes.
  • Significant SAI may enhance agricultural production in tropical regions, impacting nations globally.

ESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific):

  • ESCAP, founded in 1947, is one of the United Nations’ five regional commissions.
  • Its headquarters are situated in Bangkok, Thailand.
  • As the most inclusive intergovernmental platform in the Asia-Pacific region, ESCAP plays a pivotal role in regional development and cooperation.
  • ESCAP’s primary objective is to facilitate coordinated efforts for economic recovery and advancement in Asia and the Far East, especially in the post-war period.

Historical Background of ESCAP:

  • In 1974, ESCAP underwent restructuring and was renamed the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
  • This renaming reflected its expanded focus on both economic and social aspects of development.

Membership and Reach:

  • ESCAP consists of 53 Member States and nine Associate members.
  • This diverse membership underscores its role as a regional platform for intergovernmental collaboration and development.

Balancing Food Inequities:

  • The potential food inequities arising from SAI underscore the need for a comprehensive assessment of global climate interventions.
  • Environmental, ethical, and food security concerns are paramount.
  • Broader implications of geoengineering, including health and ecosystem impacts, require in-depth study.


  • Stratospheric Aerosol Intervention poses complex challenges, affecting agriculture and raising concerns about equity and the environment.
  • A well-balanced approach to global climate interventions is vital, considering the extensive repercussions.
  • ESCAP’s role in fostering regional development, its founding in 1947, and its headquarters in Bangkok, Thailand, highlight its significance as a regional platform for addressing unique challenges in the Asia-Pacific region.

Source: Down To Earth

Written By Vishakha Khatri

My name is Vishakha Khatri. I am an engineering graduate and a civil service aspirant with a passion for spreading knowledge about Indian polity. I believe that understanding our political system is crucial for every citizen, and I am committed to making this information accessible to everyone in my own easy way. Through my experiences in civil service preparation and my unique perspective as an engineering graduate, I hope to inspire and educate others on the importance of Indian polity.

Related Posts



In a groundbreaking decision, a 5-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has recently ruled against the Electoral Bond Scheme, emphasizing its...



India's Republic Day Parade In a transformative stride aimed at quelling controversies and championing equitable representation, the Defence Ministry has...



Ayodhya Dispute carries a very special cultural and religious reverence in India, marked not only by devotion but also beset with legal complications....

19th DECEMBER, 2023

19th DECEMBER, 2023

National Geoscience Data Repository (NGDR) Portal Launch Date and Venue: The NGDR Portal is scheduled to launch on 19th December 2023 in New Delhi. The launch...