12-13th DECEMBER

by | Dec 21, 2023

Enhancing Rail Safety: The Kavach Automatic Train Protection System

In a significant stride towards ensuring the safety of railway operations, the Indian Railways has implemented the Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system, known as Kavach. As of the latest update on December 9, the system has been deployed on 1465 route km and 139 locomotives, marking a pivotal step in railway safety technology.


The primary objective of the Kavach ATP system is to enhance railway safety by providing automatic protection measures. This includes aiding the loco pilot in adhering to specified speed limits, automatically applying brakes if necessary, and ensuring safe train operation during adverse weather conditions.

Salient Features:

  1. Deployment Scope: Kavach has been successfully deployed on South Central Railway sections, covering routes like Lingamapalli – Vikarabad – Wadi, Vikarabad – Bidar, Manmad-Mudkhed-Dhone-Guntkal, and Bidar-Parbh. The total deployment spans 1465 route km and 139 locomotives, emphasizing its extensive coverage.
  2. Expansion Plans: The project is not confined to its current deployment. Tenders for Delhi – Mumbai and Delhi – Howrah corridors (approximately 3000 route km) have been awarded, with ongoing work. Preparatory measures, including surveys and detailed estimates, are underway for an additional 6000 route km.
  3. Indigenous Development: Kavach is an indigenously developed system, showcasing India’s prowess in technology. It underwent extensive field trials starting in February 2016, leading to its adoption as a National ATP system in July 2020.
  4. Technology Intensity: Recognized as a highly technology-intensive system, Kavach demands safety certification of the highest order. Its approval by three Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) signifies a commitment to quality and safety.
  5. Incident Response: The system addresses concerns raised after the tragic triple-train accident in Odisha’s Balasore. Kavach acts as a preventive measure by automatically applying brakes in case the loco pilot fails to do so, mitigating the risk of collisions.


  1. Enhanced Safety: Kavach significantly reduces the risk of accidents by ensuring adherence to speed limits and providing automatic braking capabilities.
  2. Weather Resilience: The system aids trains in safely navigating through adverse weather conditions, contributing to the overall reliability of railway operations.
  3. National Adoption: Being adopted as a National ATP system underscores the trust and confidence placed in Kavach for ensuring the safety of passengers and the efficient operation of trains.

In conclusion, the Kavach ATP system represents a crucial leap forward in enhancing railway safety in India. Its widespread deployment and ongoing expansion projects highlight its pivotal role in modernizing and securing the nation’s railway infrastructure.

Source- PIB

Article 370 Verdict: Strengthening Unity through Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat”

In a historic decision, the Supreme Court affirmed the central government’s action of revoking Jammu and Kashmir’s special status by abrogating Article 370, a move hailed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi for fortifying the spirit of “Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat.”


The central government’s objective, now validated by the Supreme Court, is to enhance constitutional integration, emphasizing the unity and shared commitment to good governance that define the nation.

Features of Article 370:

  1. Special Autonomy: Article 370 granted Jammu and Kashmir a special autonomous status, providing the state with its constitution and decision-making powers, except in defense, communications, and foreign affairs.
  2. Limited Applicability: Laws passed by the Indian Parliament were not automatically applicable in Jammu and Kashmir. The state had the authority to decide which laws it would adopt.
  3. Unique Residency Laws: The article allowed Jammu and Kashmir to have its residency laws, determining who could own property and have voting rights in the state.

Salient Features of the Supreme Court Verdict:

  1. Legal Validation: The Constitution Bench, led by Chief Justice DY Chandrachud, validated the President’s 2019 order, asserting that Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India and endorsing the government’s constitutional move.
  2. Spirit of Unity: PM Modi sees the verdict as reinforcing the essence of Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat, emphasizing the importance of unity and shared values that transcend regional distinctions.
  3. National Integration: The court’s decision upholds the sovereignty and integrity of India, asserting that the revocation of Article 370 was aimed at enhancing constitutional integration, not disintegration.


  1. Clarity on National Integration: The judgment encourages a clear position on national integration, dispelling confusion and reinforcing the idea that unity is pivotal for the nation’s progress.
  2. End of Duality: The Prime Minister laments the historical duality in approach, asserting that the decision brings an end to confusion and allows for a fresh start towards national integration.
  3. Transformation in Jammu and Kashmir: PM Modi believes that the decision has positively transformed the atmosphere in Jammu and Kashmir, replacing disillusionment with development, democracy, and dignity.


The Supreme Court’s verdict on Article 370 marks a significant milestone in India’s journey towards national integration. PM Modi’s praise underscores the importance of unity and shared values, and he sees the decision as an opportunity to move beyond historical confusion towards a future of development and possibilities. The judgment not only legalizes a crucial constitutional move but also sets the stage for a more unified and integrated India.

Source: The Indian Express

Written By Vishakha Khatri

My name is Vishakha Khatri. I am an engineering graduate and a civil service aspirant with a passion for spreading knowledge about Indian polity. I believe that understanding our political system is crucial for every citizen, and I am committed to making this information accessible to everyone in my own easy way. Through my experiences in civil service preparation and my unique perspective as an engineering graduate, I hope to inspire and educate others on the importance of Indian polity.

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