by | Nov 3, 2023

Revolutionizing Sustainable Heating with Carbon Nanoflorets: A Breakthrough from IIT Bombay

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay have achieved a significant breakthrough with the creation of carbon nanoflorets, a novel material capable of converting sunlight into heat with remarkable efficiency. This innovative development holds the promise of transforming sustainable heating solutions while simultaneously reducing the carbon footprint. Carbon nanoflorets exhibit exceptional light absorption properties, can harness a broad spectrum of sunlight frequencies, and feature a distinctive structure that minimises heat dissipation. In this article, we will explore the design process, unique characteristics, and the wide range of applications and commercial potential of these carbon nanoflorets, offering a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to heating solutions.

Key aspects of the development of carbon nanoflorets by researchers at IIT Bombay:

  1. Impressive Light Absorption Efficiency: Carbon nanoflorets exhibit an outstanding light absorption efficiency of 87%, making them highly effective in converting sunlight into heat.
  2. Broad Spectrum Light Absorption: Unlike traditional solar-thermal materials, nanoflorets can absorb multiple frequencies of sunlight, including infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet, making them highly efficient.
  3. Unique Production Process: The creation process involves heating dendritic fibrous nanosilica (DFNS) with acetylene gas, resulting in spherical carbon beads with cone-shaped pits, resembling marigold flowers.
  4. Distinctive Structure: The carbon nanoflorets have a unique structure composed of carbon cones, minimizing light reflection and ensuring maximum internal absorption of sunlight.
  5. Minimal Heat Dissipation: The nanoflorets’ structure reduces heat dissipation over long distances, allowing them to effectively retain and utilize the generated thermal energy.
  6. Water Heating Efficiency: A one-square-meter coating of nanoflorets can efficiently vaporize approximately five liters of water within an hour, surpassing the performance of commercial solar stills.
  7. Versatile Application: Nanoflorets can be applied to diverse surfaces, including paper, metal, and terracotta clay, making them versatile for various applications.
  8. Eco-Friendly Heating: Users can harness solar energy for environmentally friendly home heating, reducing their reliance on fossil fuels and minimizing their carbon footprint.
  9. Stability and Longevity: Coated nanoflorets exhibit exceptional stability with a minimum lifetime of eight years, and ongoing research aims to assess their durability under various environmental conditions.

In summary, carbon nanoflorets represent a groundbreaking development with exceptional light absorption efficiency and a wide range of applications, offering a sustainable and eco-friendly solution for heating while minimizing environmental impact.

Source: The Hindu

Also Read: Quantum Dots and Their Astonishing Properties

India’s Multilingual Mosaic: A Linguistic and Constitutional Journey

In an increasingly interconnected world, the value of multilingualism is gaining recognition for its cognitive benefits and its potential to enrich diverse cultures. India, with its myriad of languages and scripts, stands as a prime example of the profound importance of embracing multilingualism. This article delves into the multifaceted significance of multilingualism in India, exploring its unique landscape, its contribution to diversity, and the constitutional provisions that safeguard and celebrate this linguistic tapestry.

Key Aspects in Terms of Indian Society:

Multilingual Landscape:

India boasts a distinction as one of the world’s most linguistically diverse countries, with over 19,500 languages spoken throughout the nation. This rich linguistic tapestry provides a unique opportunity for Indians to be multilingual, facilitating communication in multiple languages. The 2011 Census of India reveals that more than 25% of the population speaks two languages, while about 7% speak three. Notably, young Indians, particularly in urban areas, are more multilingual than their elder generation, with approximately half of the urban population aged 15 to 49 years speaking two languages.

Contribution of Multilingualism to India’s Diversity:

India’s multilingualism extends beyond mere numbers; it is integral to the nation’s culture, identity, and history. The diverse languages spoken across the country reflect its pluralistic society, where people of various religions, ethnicities, castes, and classes coexist and interact harmoniously.

Benefits of Multilingualism:

The advantages of multilingualism in India encompass cognitive, social, emotional, and practical realms. Multilingualism enhances cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, problem-solving, and creativity. Research indicates that bilinguals and multilinguals possess superior executive functions, responsible for organizing and controlling mental processes. Furthermore, multilingualism fosters social and emotional skills, including empathy, perspective-taking, and intercultural competence. By learning different languages, individuals can access diverse cultures, values, and worldviews, fostering a deeper understanding and appreciation of diversity. From a practical perspective, multilingualism opens doors to career opportunities, enriches travel experiences, and broadens access to information and entertainment.

Constitutional Aspects:

Article 29:

Article 29 of the Indian Constitution plays a pivotal role in protecting the interests of linguistic and cultural minorities. It upholds the right of all citizens to preserve their distinct language, script, or culture, while also prohibiting discrimination based on race, caste, creed, religion, or language.

Eighth Schedule:

The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 official languages of the republic of India. These languages include Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili, and Dogri. Notably, six languages in India have earned ‘Classical’ status and are included in the Eighth Schedule: Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, and Odia.


Constitutional Article Description Significance
Article 343 Article 343 of the Indian Constitution defines the official language of the Union government as Hindi in the Devanagari script, with international forms of Indian numerals. Additionally, it specifies that English will continue to be used as an official language for 15 years from the commencement of the Constitution. This article establishes the official language of the Union government and provides a transition period for the use of English in official matters.
Article 345 Article 345 empowers the legislature of a State to adopt one or more languages in use in the State or Hindi as the Language or Languages to be used for official purposes within that State. This article grants flexibility to individual states in choosing the language for their official purposes, allowing for the accommodation of linguistic diversity within each state.
Article 346 Article 346 recognizes India’s linguistic diversity by allowing multiple languages to be used in official communications between states and between a State and the Union. It ensures effective communication between various linguistic communities. This article promotes linguistic diversity and ensures that different linguistic groups can interact and communicate efficiently, contributing to national unity.
Article 347 Article 347 gives the President the authority to recognize a language as an official language for a specific state. Such recognition is subject to the condition that a substantial proportion of that state’s population desires the language’s official status. Recognition can be for a part or the entirety of the state. This provision grants linguistic minorities the opportunity to preserve and promote their languages in regions where they are spoken.
Article 348(1) Article 348(1) specifies that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and every High Court shall be conducted in the English language. This ensures that legal proceedings at the highest levels in India are carried out in a language that is accessible and widely understood.
Article 348(2) Article 348(2) enables the Governor of a state to authorize the use of Hindi or any other language for official purposes in proceedings in the High Court, with prior consent from the President. This allows states to facilitate legal proceedings in languages other than English where it is feasible, contributing to linguistic diversity and accessibility in legal matters.
Article 350 Article 350 guarantees that every individual has the right to submit grievances to Union or State authorities in any language used in the Union or the State, respectively. It emphasizes inclusive communication. This provision ensures that linguistic diversity is respected, and citizens can express their grievances in the language with which they are most comfortable.
Article 350A Article 350A mandates that every state shall provide primary education in the child’s mother tongue. It is a crucial step toward preserving linguistic diversity and making education inclusive. This promotes inclusive education and helps children learn in their mother tongue, fostering linguistic diversity and ensuring access to education for all.


India’s multilingual mosaic is a testament to the nation’s unity in diversity. The diverse linguistic landscape not only enriches the cultural fabric of the country but also empowers its citizens cognitively, socially, and economically. The constitutional provisions in place ensure the protection and promotion of linguistic diversity, while also fostering a deeper understanding of the unique cultural tapestry that is India. In an increasingly interconnected world, India’s embrace of multilingualism stands as an exemplary model for harmonious coexistence and progress through linguistic diversity.

Source LiveMint


Written By Vishakha Khatri

My name is Vishakha Khatri. I am an engineering graduate and a civil service aspirant with a passion for spreading knowledge about Indian polity. I believe that understanding our political system is crucial for every citizen, and I am committed to making this information accessible to everyone in my own easy way. Through my experiences in civil service preparation and my unique perspective as an engineering graduate, I hope to inspire and educate others on the importance of Indian polity.

Related Posts